YES, a Src Family Kinase, is a Proximal Glucose-Specific Activator of Cell Division Cycle Control Protein 42 (Cdc42) in Pancreatic Islet {beta} Cells [Cell Biology]

March 7th, 2014 by Yoder, S. M., Dineen, S. L., Wang, Z., Thurmond, D. C.

Second-phase insulin secretion sustains insulin release in the face of hyperglycemia associated with insulin resistance, requiring the continued mobilization of insulin secretory granules to the plasma membrane. Cdc42, the small Rho family GTPase recognized as the proximal glucose-specific trigger to elicit second-phase insulin secretion, signals downstream to activate the p21-activated kinase (PAK1), which then signals to Raf-1/MEK/ERK to induce filamentous actin (F-actin) remodeling, to ultimately mobilize insulin granules to the plasma membrane. However, the steps required to initiate Cdc42 activation in a glucose-specific manner in β cells have remained elusive. Toward this, we identified the involvement of the Src Family Kinases (SFKs), based upon the ability of SFK inhibitors to block glucose-stimulated Cdc42 and PAK1 activation events, as well as the amplifying pathway of glucose-stimulated insulin release, in MIN6 β cells. Indeed, subsequent studies performed in human islets revealed that SFK phosphorylation was induced only by glucose and within 1 min of stimulation, prior to the activation of Cdc42 at 3 min. Furthermore, pervanadate treatment validated the phosphorylation event to be tyrosine-specific. While RT-PCR showed β cells to express five different SFK proteins, only two of these, YES and Fyn kinases, were found localized to the plasma membrane, and of these two, only YES kinase underwent glucose-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation. Immunodetection and RNAi analyses further established YES kinase as a proximal glucose-specific signal known in the Cdc42-signaling cascade. Identification of YES kinase provides new insight into the mechanisms underlying the sustainment of insulin secretion via granule mobilization/replenishment and F-actin remodeling.
  • Posted in Journal of Biological Chemistry, Publications
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