The {beta}5-loop and lid-domain contribute to the substrate specificity of pancreatic lipase related protein 2 (PNLIPRP2) [Enzymology]

October 21st, 2015 by Xiao, X., Lowe, M. E.

Pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PNLIP) is essential for dietary fat digestion in children and adults whereas a homologue, pancreatic lipase related protein 2 (PNLIPRP2), is critical in newborns. The two lipases are structurally similar yet they have different substrate specificities. PNLIP only cleaves neutral fats. PNLIP cleaves neutral and polar fats. To test the hypothesis that the differences in activity between PNLIP and PNLIPRP2 are governed by surface loops around the active site, we created multiple chimeras of both lipases by exchanging the surface loops singly or in combination. The chimeras were expressed, purified and tested for activity against various substrates. The structural determinants of PNLIPRP2 galactolipase activity were contained in the N-terminal domain. Of the lid-domain, β5- and β9-loops, the lid-domain and the β5-loop influenced activity against triglycerides and galactolipids. Any chimera on PNLIP with the PNLIPRP2 lid-domain or β5-loop had decreased triglyceride lipase activity similar to that of PNLIPRP2. The corresponding chimeras of PNLIPRP2 did not increase activity against neutral lipids. Galactolipase activity was abolished by the PNLIP β5-loop and decreased by the PNLIP lid-domain. The source of the β9-loop had minimal effect on activity. We conclude that the lid-domain and β5-loop contribute to substrate specificity but do not completely account for the differing activities of PNLIP and PNLIPRP2. Other regions in the N-terminal domain must contribute to the galactolipase activity of PNLIPRP2 through direct interactions with the substrate or by altering the conformation of the residues surrounding the hydrophilic cavity in PNLIPRP2.