The Functional Maturation of A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase (ADAM) 9, 10 and 17 Requires Processing at a Newly Identified Proprotein Convertase (PC) Cleavage Site [Enzymology]

March 20th, 2015 by Wong, E., Maretzky, T., Peleg, Y., Blobel, C., Sagi, I.

Proenzyme maturation is a general mechanism to control the activation of enzymes. Catalytically active members of the A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease (ADAM) family of membrane-anchored metalloproteases are synthesized as proenzymes, in which the latency is maintained by their autoinhibitory pro-domains. A proteolytic processing then transforms the proenzyme into a catalytically active form. The removal of the pro-domain of ADAMs is currently thought to depend on processing at a canonical consensus site for the pro-protein convertase Furin (RXXR) between the pro and the catalytic domain. Here, we demonstrate that this previously described canonical site is a secondary cleavage site to a prerequisite cleavage in a newly characterized upstream PC site embedded within the pro-domain sequence. The novel upstream regulatory site is important for the maturation of several ADAM proenzymes. Mutations in the upstream regulatory site of ADAM17, ADAM10 and ADAM9 do not prevent pro-domain processing between the pro- and metalloprotease domain, but nevertheless cause significantly reduced catalytic activity. Thus, our results have uncovered a novel functionally relevant PC processing site in the N-terminal part of the pro-domain that is important for the activation of these ADAMs. These results suggest that the novel PC site is part of a general mechanism underlying proenzyme maturation of ADAMs that is independent of processing at the previously identified canonical Furin cleavage site.
  • Posted in Journal of Biological Chemistry, Publications
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