A Molecular Perspective of Mammalian Autophagosome Biogenesis [Membrane Biology]

January 25th, 2018 by Thomas J. Mercer, Andrea Gubas, Sharon A. Tooze

Autophagy is a highly conserved process, essential for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Autophagy occurs at a basal level in all cells, but can be upregulated during stress, starvation, or infection. Misregulation of autophagy has been linked to various disorders, including cancer, neurodegeneration and immune diseases. Here, we discuss the essential proteins acting in the formation of an autophagosome, with a focus on the ULK and VPS34 kinase complexes, PI3P effector proteins and the transmembrane autophagy-related protein ATG9. The function and regulation of these and other autophagy-related proteins, acting during formation will be addressed, in particular, during amino acid starvation.