A Chemical Biology Approach Demonstrates GTP-binding Protein G{beta}{gamma} Subunits are Sufficient to Mediate Directional Neutrophil Chemotaxis [Cell Biology]

May 7th, 2014 by Surve, C. R., Lehmann, D., Smrcka, A. V.

Our laboratory has identified a number of small molecules that bind to GTP-binding protein βγ subunits (Gβγ) by competing for peptide binding to the Gβγ hot spot. M119/Gallein were identified as inhibitors of Gβγ subunit signaling. Here we examine the activity of another molecule identified in this screen, 12155, which we show that in contrast to M119/Gallein had no effect on Gβγ-mediated phospholipase C (PLC)1 or phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) γ activation in vitro. Also in direct contrast to M119/Gallein 12155 caused receptor-independent Ca2+ release, and activated other downstream targets of GGβγ including extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK), protein kinase B (Akt) in HL60 cells differentiated to neutrophils. We show that 12155 releases Gβγ in vitro from Gαi1β1γ2 heterotrimers by causing its dissociation from GαGDP without inducing nucleotide exchange in the Gα subunit. We used this novel probe to examine the hypothesis that Gβγ release is sufficient to direct chemotaxis of neutrophils in the absence of receptor or G protein α subunit activation. 12155 directed chemotaxis of HL60 cells and primary neutrophils in a transwell migration assay with responses similar to those seen for the natural chemotactic peptide fMLP. These data indicate that release of free Gβγ is sufficient to drive directional chemotaxis in a GPCR signaling-independent manner.
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