Nitroxyl (HNO) reacts with molecular oxygen and forms peroxynitrite at physiological pH: Biological implications [Signal Transduction]

November 5th, 2014 by Smulik, R., Debski, D., Zielonka, J., Michałowski, B., Adamus, J., Marcinek, A., Kalyanaraman, B., Sikora, A.

Nitroxyl (HNO), the protonated one-electron reduction product of nitric oxide (NO), remains an enigmatic reactive nitrogen species. Its chemical reactivity and biological activity are still not completely understood. HNO donors show biological effects different from NO donors. Although HNO reactivity with molecular oxygen is described in the literature, the product of this reaction has not yet been unambiguously identified. Here we report, that the decomposition of HNO donors under aerobic conditions in aqueous solutions at physiological pH leads to the formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO−) as a major intermediate. We have specifically detected and quantified ONOO− with the aid of boronate probes, e.g., coumarin-7-boronic acid (CBA), or 4-boronobenzyl derivative of fluorescein methyl ester (FBBE). In addition to the major phenolic products, peroxynitrite-specific minor products of oxidation of boronate probes were detected under these conditions. Using the competition kinetics method and a set of HNO scavengers, the value of the second-order rate constant of the HNO reaction with oxygen (k = 1.8×10^4 M-1s-1) was determined. The rate constant (k = 2×10^4 M-1s-1) was also determined using kinetic simulations. The kinetic parameters of the reactions of HNO with selected thiols, including cysteine, dithiothreitol, N-acetylcysteine, captopril, bovine and human serum albumins and hydrogen sulfide are reported. Biological and cardiovascular implications of nitroxyl reactions are discussed.