The Tumor Suppressor CHD5 Remodels Nucleosomes by Unwrapping [Gene Regulation]

June 12th, 2014 by Quan, J., Yusufzai, T.

Although mutations or deletions of chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 5 (CHD5) have been linked to cancer and implicate CHD5 in tumor suppression, the ATP-dependent activity of CHD5 is currently unknown. In this study, we discovered that CHD5 is a chromatin remodeling factor with a unique enzymatic activity. CHD5 can expose nucleosomal DNA at one or two discrete positions in the nucleosome. The exposure of the nucleosomal DNA by CHD5 is dependent on ATP hydrolysis, but continued ATP hydrolysis is not required to maintain the nucleosomes in their remodeled state. The activity of CHD5 is distinct from other related chromatin remodeling ATPases, such as ACF and BRG1, and does not lead to complete disruption or destabilization of the nucleosome. Rather, CHD5 likely initiates remodeling in a manner similar to that of other remodeling factors but does not significantly reposition the nucleosome. While the related factor CHD4 shows strong ATPase activity, it does not unwrap nucleosomes as efficiently as CHD5. Our findings add to the growing evidence that chromatin remodeling ATPases have diverse roles in modulating chromatin structure.