Complement 5a Enhances Hepatic Metastases of Colon Cancer via Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1-Mediated Inflammatory Cell Infiltration [Molecular Biophysics]

March 4th, 2015 by Piao, C., Cai, L., Qiu, S., Jia, L., Song, W., Du, J.

Complement 5a(C5a), a potent immune mediator generated by complement activation, promotes tumor growth; however, its role in tumor metastasis remains unclear. We demonstrate that C5a contributes to tumor metastases by modulating tumor inflammation in hepatic metastases of colon cancer. Colon cancer cell lines release C5a under serum-free conditions, and C5a levels increase over time in a murine syngeneic colon cancer hepatic metastasis model. Furthermore, in the absence of C5a receptor or upon pharmacological inhibition of C5a production with an anti-C5 monoclonal antibody, tumor metastasis is severely impaired. A lack of C5a receptor in colon cancer metastatic foci reduces the infiltration of macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells, and the role for C5a receptor on these cells was further verified by bone marrow transplantation experiments. Moreover, C5a signaling increases the expression of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and the anti-inflammatory molecules arginase-1, interleukin 10, and transforming growth factor beta, but is inversely correlated with the expression of pro-inflammatory NOS2 and IL-23, which suggests a mechanism for the role of C5a in the immunosuppressive microenvironment required for tumor metastasis. Our results indicate a new and potentially promising therapeutic application of complement C5a inhibitor for the treatment of malignant tumors.
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