Mutations in the X-Linked Intellectual Disability Gene, zDHHC9, Alter Autopalmitoylation Activity by Distinct Mechanisms [Signal Transduction]

May 8th, 2014 by Mitchell, D. A., Hamel, L. D., Reddy, K. D., Farh, L., Rettew, L. M., Sanchez, P. R., Deschenes, R. J.

Early onset intellectual disabilities (ID) result in significant societal and economic costs, and affect 1-3% of the population. The underlying genetic determinants are beginning to emerge and are interpreted in the context of years of work characterizing postsynaptic receptor and signaling functions of learning and memory. DNA sequence analysis of ID patients has revealed greater than 80 loci on the X-chromosome that are potentially linked to disease. One of the loci is zDHHC9, a gene encoding a Ras protein acyltransferase (PAT). Protein palmitoylation is a reversible modification that controls the subcellular localization and distribution of membrane receptors, scaffolds, and signaling proteins required for neuronal plasticity. Palmitoylation occurs in two steps. In the first step, autopalmitoylation, an enzyme:palmitoyl intermediate is formed. During the second step, the palmitoyl moiety is transferred to a protein substrate, or if no substrate is available, hydrolysis of the thioester linkage produces the enzyme and free palmitate. In this re-port we demonstrate that two naturally occurring variants of zDHHC9, R148W and P150S, affect the autopalmitoylation step of the reaction by lowering the steady state amount of the palmitoyl:zDHHC9 intermediate.
  • Posted in Journal of Biological Chemistry, Publications
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