Role of Janus Kinase 3 in Predisposition to Obesity associated Metabolic Syndrome [Signal Transduction]

October 8th, 2015 by Mishra, J., Verma, R. K., Alpini, G., Meng, F., Kumar, N.

Obesity, a worldwide epidemic, is a major risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) including diabetes and associated health complications. Recent studies indicate that chronic low-grade inflammation (CLGI) plays a key role in metabolic deterioration in the obese population. Previously, we reported that Jak3 was essential for mucosal differentiation and enhanced colonic barrier functions and its loss in mice resulted in basal CLGI and predisposition to DSS induced colitis. Since CLGI is associated with diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, present studies determined the role of Jak3 in development of such conditions. Our data show that loss of Jak3 resulted in increased body weight, basal systemic CLGI, compromised glycemic homeostasis, hyperinsulinemia, and early symptoms of liver steatosis. Lack of Jak3 also resulted in exaggerated symptoms of metabolic syndrome by western high-fat diet. Mechanistically, Jak3 was essential for reduced expression and activation of toll like receptors (TLRs) in murine intestinal mucosa and human intestinal epithelial cells where Jak3 interacted with and activated p85, the regulatory sub-unit of the PI3K, through tyrosine phosphorylation of adapter protein insulin receptor substrate (IRS1). These interactions resulted in activation of PI3K-Akt axis, which was essential for reduced TLR expression and TLR associated NFkB activation. Collectively, these results demonstrate the essential role of Jak3 in promoting mucosal tolerance through suppressed expression and limiting activation of TLRs thereby preventing intestinal and systemic CLGI and associated obesity and MetS.