{gamma}-Secretase associated with lipid rafts: multiple interactive pathways in the stepwise processing of {beta}-carboxyl terminal fragment [Neurobiology]

December 28th, 2013 by Matsumura, N., Takami, M., Okochi, M., Wada-Kakuda, S., Fujiwara, H., Tagami, S., Funamoto, S., Ihara, Y., Morishima-Kawashima, M.

γ∝Secretase generates amyloid β∝protein (Aβ), a pathogenic molecule in Alzheimer′s disease, through the intramembrane cleavage of the β∝carboxyl terminal fragment (βCTF) of β∝amyloid precursor protein. We previously showed the framework of the γ∝secretase cleavage: the stepwise successive processing of βCTF at every three (or four) amino acids. However, the membrane integrity of γ∝secretase was not taken into consideration because of the use of the CHAPSO∝solubilized reconstituted γ∝secretase system. Here, we sought to address how the membrane∝integrated γ∝secretase cleaves βCTF by using γ∝secretase associated with lipid rafts. Quantitative analyses using liquid chromatography∝tandem mass spectrometry of the βCTF transmembrane domain∝derived peptides released along with Aβ generation revealed that the raft∝associated γ∝secretase cleaves βCTF in a stepwise sequential manner, but novel penta∝ and hexapeptides as well as tri- and tetrapeptides are released. The cropping of these peptides links the two major tripeptide∝cleaving pathways generating Aβ40 and Aβ42 at several points, implying that there are multiple interactive pathways for the stepwise cleavages of βCTF. It should be noted that Aβ38 and Aβ43 are generated through three routes, and γ∝secretase modulator 1 enhances all the three routes generating Aβ38, which results in decreases in Aβ42 and Aβ43 and an increase in Aβ38. These observations indicate that multiple interactive pathways for stepwise successive processing by γ∝secretase define the species and quantity of Aβ produced.
  • Posted in Journal of Biological Chemistry, Publications
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