Insulin resistance induces posttranslational hepatic Sortilin 1 degradation in mice [Metabolism]

March 23rd, 2015 by Li, J., Matye, D. J., Li, T.

Insulin promotes hepatic apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) degradation, while insulin resistance is a major cause of hepatic ApoB100/triglyceride overproduction in type-2 diabetes. The cellular trafficking receptor Sortilin 1 (Sort1) was recently identified to transport ApoB100 to the lysosome for degradation in the liver, and thus regulate plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Genetic variation of SORT1 was strongly associated with cardiovascular disease risk in humans. The major goal of this study is to investigate the effect and molecular mechanism of insulin regulation of Sort1. Results showed that insulin induced Sort1 protein, but not mRNA, in AML12 cells. Treatment of PI3K or AKT inhibitors decreased Sort1 protein, while expression of constitutively active AKT induced Sort1 protein in AML12 cells. Consistently, hepatic Sort1 was down-regulated in diabetic mice, which was partially restored after the administration of the insulin sensitizer metformin. LC-MS/MS analysis further revealed that serine phosphorylation of Sort1 protein was required for insulin induction of Sort1 in a casein kinase 2 - dependent manner, and that inhibition of PI3K signaling or prevention of Sort1 phosphorylation accelerated proteasome-dependent Sort1 degradation. Administration of a PI3K inhibitor to mice decreased hepatic Sort1 protein and increased plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Adenovirus-mediated over-expression of Sort1 in the liver prevented PI3K inhibitor-induced Sort1 down-regulation, decreased plasma triglyceride, but had no effect on plasma cholesterol in mice. This study identified Sort1 as a novel target of insulin signaling, and suggests that Sort1 may play a role in altered hepatic ApoB100 metabolism in insulin resistant conditions.