Transglutaminase inhibition stimulates hematopoiesis and reduces aggressive behavior of crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus [Cell Biology]

November 13th, 2018 by Kingkamon Junkunlo, Kenneth Soderhall, Irene Soderhall

Transglutaminase (TGase) is a Ca2+-dependent cross-linking enzyme, which has both enzymatic and non-enzymatic properties. TGase is involved in several cellular activities, including adhesion, migration, survival, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix (ECM) organization. In this study, we focused on the role of the TGase enzyme in controlling hematopoiesis in the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. We hypothesized that a high TGase activity could mediate an interaction of progenitor cells with the ECM to maintain cells in an undifferentiated stage in the hematopoietic tissue (HPT). We found here that the reversible inhibitor cystamine decreases the enzymatic activity of TGase from crayfish HPT as well as from guinea pig in a concentration-dependent manner. Cystamine injection could decrease TGase activity in HPT without affecting production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover the decrease in TGase activity in the HPT increased the number of circulating hemocytes. Interestingly the cystamine-mediated TGase inhibition reduced aggressive behavior and movement in crayfish. In conclusion, we show that cystamine-mediated TGase inhibition directly releases HPT progenitor cells from the HPT into the peripheral circulation in the hemolymph and strongly reduces aggressive behavior in crayfish.