Eisosomes regulate PI(4,5)P2 cortical clusters and MAP kinase signaling upon osmotic stress [Signal Transduction]

September 10th, 2015 by Kabeche, R., Madrid, M., Cansado, J., Moseley, J. B.

Eisosomes are multi-protein structures that generate linear invaginations at the plasma membrane of yeast cells. The core component of eisosomes, the BAR domain protein Pil1, generates these invaginations through direct binding to lipids including phosphoinositides. Eisosomes promote hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] by functioning with synaptojanin, but the cellular processes regulated by this pathway have been unknown. Here, we found that PI(4,5)P2 regulation by eisosomes inhibits the cell integrity pathway, a conserved MAPK signal transduction cascade. This pathway is activated by multiple environmental conditions including osmotic stress in the fission yeast S. pombe. Activation of the MAPK Pmk1 was impaired by mutations in the PI(5)-kinase Its3, but this defect was suppressed by removal of eisosomes. Using fluorescent biosensors, we found that osmotic stress induced the formation of PI(4,5)P2 clusters that were spatially organized by eisosomes in both fission yeast and budding yeast cells. These cortical clusters contained the PI(5)-kinase Its3, and did not assemble in the its3-1 mutant. The GTPase Rho2, an upstream activator of Pmk1, also co-localized with PI(4,5)P2 clusters under osmotic stress, providing a molecular link between these novel clusters and MAPK activation. Our findings have revealed that eisosomes regulate activation of MAPK signal transduction through the organization of cortical lipid-based microdomains.