Pancreatic {alpha}-Amylase Controls Glucose Assimilation by Duodenal Retrieval through N-Glycan-specific Binding, Endocytosis, and Degradation [Glycobiology and Extracellular Matrices]

May 28th, 2015 by Date, K., Satoh, A., Iida, K., Ogawa, H.

α-Amylase, a major pancreatic protein and starch hydrolase, is essential for energy acquisition. Mammalian pancreatic α-amylase binds specifically to glycoprotein N-glycans in the brush-border membrane (BBM) to activate starch digestion, while it significantly inhibits glucose uptake by Na+/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) at high concentrations (Asanuma-Date K. et al., (2012) J. Biol. Chem., 287, 23104 - 23118). However, how the inhibition is stopped was unknown. Here, we show a new mechanism for the regulation of intestinal glucose absorption. Immunohistochemistry revealed that α-amylase in the duodena of non-fasted, but not fasted, pigs was internalized from the pancreatic fluid and immunostained. We demonstrated that after N-glycan binding, pancreatic α-amylase underwent internalization into lysosomes in a process that was inhibited by α-mannoside. The internalized α-amylase was degraded, showing low enzymatic activity and molecular weight at the basolateral membrane. In a human intestinal Caco-2 cell line, AlexaFluor488-labeled pancreatic α-amylase bound to the cytomembrane was transported to lysosomes through the endocytic pathway, and then disappeared, suggesting degradation. Our findings indicate that N-glycan recognition by α-amylase protects enterocytes against a sudden increase in glucose concentration and restores glucose uptake by gradual internalization, which homeostatically controls the postprandial blood glucose level. The internalization of α-amylase may also enhance the supply of amino acids required for the high turnover of small intestine epithelial cells. This study provides novel and significant insights into the control of blood sugar during the absorption stage in the intestine.
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