The replication initiation protein Sld3/Treslin orchestrates the assembly of the replication fork helicase during S phase [DNA and Chromosomes]

September 24th, 2015 by Bruck, I., Kaplan, D. L.

The initiation of DNA replication is a highly regulated process in eukaryotic cells, and central to the process of initiation is the assembly and activation of the replication fork helicase. The replication fork helicase is comprised of CMG (Cdc45, Mcm2-7, and GINS) in eukaryotic cells, and the mechanism underlying assembly of the CMG during S phase was studied in this manuscript. We identified a point mutation of Sld3 that is specifically defective for Mcm3 and Mcm5 interaction (sld3-m10), and we also identified a point mutation of Sld3 that is specifically defective for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) interaction (sld3-m9). Expression of wild-type levels of sld3-m9 resulted in a severe DNA replication defect with no recruitment of GINS to Mcm2-7, while expression of wild-type levels of sld3-m10 resulted in a severe replication defect with no Cdc45 recruitment to Mcm2-7. We propose a model for Sld3-mediated control of replication initiation, wherein Sld3 manages the proper assembly of the CMG during S phase. We also find that the biochemical functions identified for Sld3 are conserved in human Treslin, suggesting that Treslin orchestrates assembly of the CMG in human cells.
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The Dbf4-Cdc7 kinase promotes Mcm2-7 ring opening to allow for single-stranded DNA extrusion and helicase assembly [DNA and Chromosomes]

December 3rd, 2014 by Bruck, I., Kaplan, D. L.

The replication fork helicase in eukaryotes is composed of Cdc45, Mcm2-7, and GINS (CMG). The Dbf4-Cdc7 kinase phosphorylates Mcm2 in vitro, but the in vivo role for Dbf4-Cdc7 phosphorylation of Mcm2 is unclear. We find that budding yeast Dbf4-Cdc7 phosphorylates Mcm2 in vivo under normal conditions during S phase. Inhibiting Dbf4-Cdc7 phosphorylation of Mcm2 confers a dominant-negative phenotype with a severe growth defect. Inhibiting Dbf4-Cdc7 phosphorylation of Mcm2 under wild-type-expression conditions also results in impaired DNA replication, substantially decreased single-stranded formation at an origin, and markedly disrupted interaction between GINS and Mcm2-7 during S phase. In vitro, DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2 substantially weakens the interaction between Mcm2 and Mcm5, and Dbf4-Cdc7 phosphorylation of Mcm2 promotes Mcm2-7 ring opening. The extrusion of ssDNA from the central channel of Mcm2-7 triggers GINS attachment to Mcm2-7. Thus, Dbf4-Cdc7 phosphorylation of Mcm2 may open the Mcm2-7 ring at the Mcm2-Mcm5 interface, allowing for single-stranded DNA extrusion and subsequent GINS assembly with Mcm2-7.